By Bob Flexner Pages A while back, my wife and I were visiting friends who wanted to show us their collection of antique furniture. At one point we went into their bedroom and I headed directly for a very old-looking chest-of-drawers. I just wanted to date the piece by how the drawer was made. Construction Drawer construction has changed several times in the last years. Simply pull a drawer out a few inches, glance at the joinery on the side and feel the drawer bottom underneath — essentially a single motion. In addition, the wood used for the drawer sides and bottoms helps determine whether the furniture is American or European. How a drawer is constructed and the woods used is revealing, but there are two important caveats. First, dating furniture is a fine art. Seldom does one clue provide confirmation of anything.
The Knapp Joint
Miscellaneous body features NOTE: If unsure of some of the terminology used on this page related to the physical features of bottles, visit the General Bottle Morphology page. That page includes an illustration of a somewhat stylized “typical” bottle with the different physical “parts” morphological features pointed out; parts which are often easier to visualize than describe. Manufacturing non-mold Based Body Features Free-blown bottle bodies Free-blown bottles were produced without the aid of a mold, being instead formed and shaped by the skills of the glassblower using manipulation of the blowpipe the use of which dates back to the 3rd century B.
Free-blown utilitarian bottles found or made in the U. The were rarely produced after the s by American glass companies producing utilitarian bottles but the technique is still likely being used to some degree for specialty or artist bottles Toulouse a; empirical observations.
Another scarf joint that I have used is the “bladed timber frame scarf joint”. This drawing is of a 6″ x 10″ bladed scarf joint that we cut to create one long timber for an addition to an existing barn. .
To read more about chisels on our Common Woodworking site, click here. John bought some chisels from the car boot sale last week. Pennies go a long way in scrap tool bins here and for a pound or two you can walk away with a bag full of tools. There can be no doubt William Marples of old was the single most productive tool maker in Sheffield and when you see the Shamrock logo stamped, embossed or print labeled on old tools you can buy with confidence knowing that it will be a lifetime tool.
I use the lesser sizes every day. I posted on a chisel the other day in the one about brass and steel and boxwood. What makes a good chisel depends on the work type. I know that many woodworkers believe massive mortise chisels are the best way to go for mortising holes in woods like pine and oak and mahogany. They were indeed designed for that purpose in a period when mortises were chopped out by bench joiners and cabinet makers UK for furniture maker using only hand methods.
Where the chisel types cross over is not always definitive. Mortise chisels weigh in at three to four times that of a bevel-edged chisel. The handles are twice to three times the size and the steel massively increases by four to five times the bulk in comparing the same two chisel types.
The Timber Joint
Home Blog A very old drawer, in a very old chest of drawers October 11, By Al Navas A very old drawer, in a very old chest of drawers We are finally home, after 3, miles on the road in two weeks. Following the conference we drove into the Western part of Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Vermont, a region commonly referred to as New England, for all readers not in the United States. And now the job of cataloging photos of our trip begins, to make some order of the conference, the miles, the gorgeous views, and the wonderful people along the way.
Quarter-sawn timber: two methods of converting quarter sawn timber are shown above, in red and green, both producing boards with the grain generally at right angles. It is a labour intensive method of conversion, but produces the timber least prone to.
Final tightening of side-planted timbers which were bolted to the ends of joists to re-establish their bearing into the masonry. The ends were removed following a severe dry rot attack. Timber has been used in building structures for centuries, whether for roofs, floor beams and joists, posts and lintels for windows and doors, or for complete timber framed buildings, including load-bearing walls and screen partitions.
The use and form of the timber elements and signs of how they were shaped are useful in dating historic buildings because the type of joints, framework design and tool technology changed over the centuries. Whether or not they are visible, timbers are intrinsic to the historic and archaeological interest of the building. Structural timbers may deteriorate as a result of decay, over-loading, or as a result of poor design and alterations carried out in the past.
A common problem is decay brought about by moisture, often owing to a leak, poor maintenance or condensation. This allows fungi dry rot for example or wood-boring insects such as woodworm and deathwatch beetle to colonise the timber and by their action reduce its strength. Over-loaded structural members fail by cracking, bending or crushing. The over-loading may arise either as a result of weakening following decay, or because they were designed poorly or frugally, or because they were meant to take a different set of loads than they are currently bearing.
For example, a roof structure designed for thatch or slate may not be capable of supporting the weight of heavy tiles. For centuries repairs have been fashioned using carpentry methods or with blacksmith-made splints, brackets and ties, and these ancient repairs certainly add character and help tell the story of the building.
All about Pine Wood. A little history of Oak Oak or quercus as it is known in Latin is a hardwood with some known species. It has always been a popular wood in The UK, but in recent times it is even more widely used in construction and also as internal fixtures in clubs and gyms etc.
Mortise and tenon joints pinned together with timber dowels. This simple joint uses the most basic materials and is the oldest method of building wooden structures, dating back at least to the early remained the primary method until the development of stick framing in the ‘s.
Upon encountering a new site, the archaeologist immediately requires information about its age in order to set it in context with other sites. In research into our heritage the conservationist or architect may be able to date the general period of a building he is working with from either the situation, materials of construction, type of timber joints or other stylistic features. Almost certainly the century or portion of a century when it was built may be assigned with some certainty.
However, as more and more work is done and increasing numbers of structures with complex constructional phases are encountered, the general features may not be sufficient to give the accuracy in dating that is currently required. If research into other sources of information also fails to throw light on the building’s history, resort may be made to the various scientific methods of dating. This article outlines three of the most important methods currently used for dating buildings or, in a complex situation, the order of construction within the building.
Each method has a distinct role in the investigation of historic buildings. None is infallible and before embarking on an extensive dating survey, due thought must be given to what might be achieved and which methods might be the more successful. If necessary, seek advice. Whilst earlier types of wooden joints may be copied in later buildings and earlier styles may be reintroduced in later periods to confound the conservationist or historian, any reuse of older materials should become obvious by the use of the chronometrical methods described here.
You’ll also be signed up to receive e-newsletters from Antique Trader and partners. Fred Taylor January 13, One of the first things to be looked at when trying to determine the age of a piece of older or antique furniture is the type of joinery used in the construction of the piece. Knowing the history of the technology of various periods goes a long way toward explaining clues about the age of furniture and none is more important or accessible than the type of joint used to secure a drawer.
Mostly what we see are dovetails of a sort. The interlocking dovetail joint came into general use in the William and Mary period in the late s and very early s and for the first time allowed the construction of reliable drawers, a device with extremely limited use or convenience until then. Before this innovation most furniture consisted of simple boxes called coffers or some type of open shelving arrangement and cabinets with shelves behind doors such as the old court cupboard.
Understand the many types and applications of rabbet joints. One of the first joinery cuts that new woodworkers try is the rabbet. A rabbet is simply an open-sided channel or recess along the edge or across the end of a board or panel. Easy to cut, it helps locate parts during assembly, and it.
Types[ edit ] A mortise is a cavity cut into a timber to receive a tenon. There are several kinds of mortise: Stub mortise a shallow mortise, the depth of which depends on the size of the timber; also a mortise that does not go through the workpiece as opposed to a “through mortise”. Through mortise Wedged half- dovetail a mortise in which the back is wider, or taller, than the front, or opening.
The space for the wedge initially leaves room to insert the tenon. The wedge, after the tenon is engaged, prevents its withdrawal. Through-wedged half-dovetail a wedged half-dovetail mortise that passes entirely through the piece. A tenon is a projection on the end of a timber for insertion into a mortise. Usually the tenon is taller than it is wide. There are several kinds of tenon:
What joint is thi?
A prosthesis then, is as much medical device as it is an emotional comfort, and so the history of prosthetics is not only a scientific history, but the story of human beings since the dawn of civilization who by birth, wound, or accident were left with something missing. A big toe, belonging to a noblewoman, was found in Egypt and dated to between B. The big toe was particularly important to an Egyptian because it was necessary in order to wear the traditional Egyptian sandals.
A dovetail joint or simply dovetail is a joinery technique most commonly used in woodworking joinery (carpentry) including furniture, cabinets.  log buildings and traditional timber framing. Noted for its resistance to being pulled apart (tensile strength), the dovetail joint is commonly used to join the sides of a drawer to the front.
Through dovetail joints are most commonly used on box construction and carcass. Through dovetail joints are referred to as English dovetail joints. Half-blind Dovetail Joints or Single-lap Dovetail A half-blind dovetail joint also known as the single-lap dovetail joint is exactly opposite of a through joint because the end grain is not visible on the boards. Sockets house the tails at the end of the boards so the dovetail ends are invisible.
Half-blind dovetail joints are commonly used for attaching drawer fronts. Half blind dovetail vs. Secret Mitred Dovetail Joints A secret mitred joint is also know as a full-blind mitred dovetail and full-blind dovetail joint. Secret mitred joints are used in box work and cabinet construction and offers the best strength out of all of the dovetail joints. These joints are used for box work or fine cabinet construction where strength is needed without a joint you can see.
Secret double-lapped joints are used for box construction and carcass construction to hid the dovetails.
Reclaimed Antique Hand Hewn Wood Beams
A substructure composed of stone, concrete, brick or timber supporting the end of a single span or the extreme end of a multispan superstructure and, in general, retaining or supporting the approach embankment placed in contact with it. See also Retaining Walls, Wing Wall. A portable power-operated machine designed to adz crossties to provide proper bearing for tie plates. The sand, gravel, broken stone or combinations thereof with which the cementing material is mixed to form a mortar or concrete.
The fine material used to produce mortar for stone and brick masonry and for the mortar component of concrete is commonly termed “fine aggregate” while the coarse material used in concrete only is termed “coarse aggregate. The horizontal location of a railroad as described by curves and tangents.
Carpenters use dovetail joints to create cabinets, furniture, drawers, log buildings, carcass construction, timber framing. Dovetail joints are known for their strength and durability. Dovetail joints don’t require mechanical fasteners to stick together like other joinery techniques do.
April 10, There are various woodworking joints in use. Some are stronger than others are. Butt Joint The Butt Joint is an easy woodworking joint. It joins two pieces of wood by merely butting them together. The butt joint is the simplest joint to make. It is also the weakest wood joint unless you use some form of reinforcement. It depends upon glue alone to hold it together. Because the orientations of the pieces, you have an end grain to long grain gluing surface. The resulting wood joint is inherently weak.
Glue does not provide much lateral strength. You can break this woodworking joint with your bare hands.
The History of Prosthetics
Employee Ownership We have been dedicated to delivering visionary oak framed buildings since As pioneers of exceptional timber engineering, you can find the work of Carpenter Oak in buildings across the UK and overseas. The original team of owners championed design and craft across timber construction. Their knowledge was gained through the study and repair of traditional timber buildings. They developed an understanding of the historical use of green timber and gained the confidence to build new structures.
We combine technical design, master craftsmanship and exquisite materials to create stunning spaces. We pioneered the use of structural timber for sympathetic restoration across the UK, and for over 30 years we have continued to develop innovative techniques to lead the way in the timber framing industry.
Download the PDF Figure 1. This door and transom suggest the richness of 19th century leaded glass. Glass is a highly versatile medium. In its molten state, it can be spun, blown, rolled, cast in any shape, and given any color. Once cooled, it can be polished, beveled, chipped, etched, engraved, or painted. Stained and leaded glass can be found throughout America in a dazzling variety of colors, patterns, and textures Figure 1. It appears in windows, doors, ceilings, fanlights, sidelights, light fixtures, and other glazed features found in historic buildings Figure 2.
Tiger Woods Takes Hot GF to Hot Sushi Joint
Hole in the ground to allow access to underground services; access chamber. A roof which slopes steeply e. Named after a French architect. In general usage this describes work constructed of stone, but technically the term masonry also includes brickwork and blockwork.
HISTORIC AMERICAN TIMBER JOINERY A Graphic Guide By Jack A. Sobon With illustrations by the author Published by the Timber Framers Guild, PO Box 60, Becket, MA irregular timber; all joints are cut to the surfaces of the imagined inner timber, such that standardization is possible for similar pieces, Fig. 2. The three-bay, side.
Sash window problems The key to successful property renovation is deceptively simple — buying the right property in the first place. Windows are one such area, despite the fact that the cost of installing new replacements throughout can easily run into five figures — not much less than for a major re-roofing job. Perhaps this relaxed attitude is down to the fact that local DIY stores stock a wide range of off-the-shelf windows that a competent person can fit.
Or maybe we should blame the double-glazing industry for seductively portraying window replacement as a desirable and easy home improvement. For example, fitting double glazing is widely believed to be a great way to reduce energy bills by cutting heat loss from your property. According to the Energy Saving Trust, based on the resulting savings in reduced bills, it can take well over 50 years for the cost of installing new windows to be paid back.
Another common misconception is that PVCu windows last forever and are maintenance free. In fact, there are a number of problems that can develop over time, such as defective handles, damaged seals and the glass misting up.